Logic is the area of philosophy that _____. Plato's Republic identifies three classes of people: _____. The Ring of Gyges presents the _____ position. ", Callicles preached the doctrine of social obligation known as the "common good.". The Renaissance view of nature began to take shape as antithetical to the Greek view in the work of Copernicus (1473-1543), Telesio (1508-88), and Bruno (1548-1600). Aristotle himself described his subject matter in a variety of ways: as ‘first philosophy’, or ‘the study of being qua being’, or ‘wisdom’, or ‘theology’. Greek philosophy covers an absolutely enormous amount of topics including: political philosophy, ethics, metaphysics, ontology (the study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality), logic, biology, rhetoric, and aesthetics (branch of philosophy dealing with art, beauty, and taste). According to C. G. Jung, an archetype _____. two basic sections, each unevenly divided into two segments, illusion, informed opinion, deductive reasoning, and direct apprehension of the Good. Aristotle's school contained the first important library in the West. The root entero-is used in many words related to the intestines, such as enterology (the branch of medicine dealing with the intestines). Ethics is the area of philosophy that _____. Describe the Greek social and cultural conditions in the time after Aristotle's death that gave rise to Skepticism, Cynicism, Epicureanism, Stoicism, and Christianity. a rare human being whose very nature represents something elemental about the human condition, is defined as the interest of the stronger party. (A) It describes the “inner urge” implanted by nature in all living things. For Plato, knowledge is always about _____. _____ is an example of a sophistic technique mentioned in the text. 2. The problem of universals goes back to Plato and Aristotle. Which philosophical archetype argues that our private and communal behavior should always maximize pleasure and minimize pain? Our main sources of information concerning Protagoras are: 1. 20 terms. Both the sophos and Sophists were professional philosophers and teachers. One of the most durable and intractable issues in the history of philosophy has been the problem of universals.Closely related to this, and a major subject of debate in 20th century philosophy, has been the problem of the nature of the meaning.. Thomas (Thomas Theorem) IV. Who informed Socrates that he … Which term was first used by the Pythagoreans to characterize the universe as an ordered whole consisting of harmonies of contrasting elements? Twenty-first century American culture bears no resemblance to the democratic state of Plato's Athens. Eudaimonia comes from two Greek words: Eu-: good Daimon: soul or “self.”A difficult word to translate into English. The Greek civilization, for example, arose from the Aryan stock with a tincture of the Semitic. According to Plato, _____ make things uniquely and essentially what they are. PHILO 103 - Exam 1. Aristotle believed in _____ level(s) of reality. : The Iliad and The Odyssey dominated Greek life, for centuries the Bible or Koran of Greece and Rome – takes for granted Hesiod’s Theogony. According to Plato, particular kinds of _____ produce particular kinds of _____. In the philosophy of Aristotle, the actualization of the potential form or function of a substance. From the Greek word kosmos meaning "world", "universe" or "orderly structure"; Argument for the existence of God that because it is impossible for any natural thing to be the complete and sufficient source of its own existence, there must be an Uncaused Cause capable of … The concept is intimately connected with Aristotle’s distinction between matter and form, or the potential and the actual. In the philosophy of Aristotle, the actualization of the potential form or function of a substance. By 479, the Persians were forced back into Asia Minor. Which of the following most accurately explains the importance of “ techne ” to the Greek Humanist philosophers? Aristotle - Aristotle - Philosophy of mind: Aristotle regarded psychology as a part of natural philosophy, and he wrote much about the philosophy of mind. The mythical Gaia was the primal Greek goddess personifying the Earth, the Greek version of "Mother Nature" (from Ge = Earth, and Aia = PIE grandmother), or the Earth Mother. The first records of the word enteral come from the early 1900s. occurs when we hold a belief regardless of the facts, "Nothing anyone can say will make me change my mind.". Socrates believed that the teacher's role is to draw wisdom and clarity out of a disordered and confused soul. However, since the dawn of time, philosophers have been pursuing the inquiry of happiness… after all, the purpose of life is not just to live, but to live ‘well’. Definition • Spartans defeated Athens and then Romans invaded Greek territory making everything unstable and people were demoralized The two main sources of information about Socrates are _____. Aristotle is commonly considered the inventor of teleology, although the precise term originated in the eighteenth century. Metaphysics is the area of philosophy that _____. the claim that behavior is always controlled by beliefs about what is good. explains the importance of "entelechy" to the Greek Humanist philosopher Aristotle? Plato, in his theory of forms, separates the sensible world (appearances) of the intelligible world (ideas) and the intelligible world was the only reality, the foundation of all truth. T/F. Socrates thought he possessed _____ wisdom. A vital aspect of Socratic teaching was _____. We must achieve an understanding of Aristotle’s word entelechia , the heart of his definition of motion, in order to see that what it says cannot be said just as well by such a word as “transition.” Socrates considered himself to be a kind of _____. Happiness. According to Aristotle, _____ is that which makes a thing what it is. The sophos were highly regarded by the communities in which they lived. Which of the following most accurately explains the importance of “ techne ” to the Greek Humanist philosophers? Aristotle (384–322 B.C. in Elea, now Velia, in southern Italy; and he died in about 430 B.C.E. The belief that knowledge is determined by specific qualities of the observer is known as _____. Entelechy. _____. According to Protagoras, the most practical course for most of us _____. Which of the following was most important to the Sophists? Thrasymachus tells Socrates that justice _____. From lowest to highest, the levels of awareness are _____. Socrates believed that _____ is the essence of humanness. Another name for a paradigmatic individual is _____. chies 1. This is what is meant by ‘teleology’ from the Greek teleoV meaning end. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want! In Metaphysics Α.1, Aristotle says that “all mensuppose what is called wisdom (sophia) to deal with the firstcauses (aitia) and the principles (archai) ofthings” (981b28), and it is these causes and principles that heproposes to study in this work. It comes from the Greek énteron, meaning “intestine.”. form can be distinguished from content only in thought, According to Aristotle, _____ answers the question "What is that? The Greek word is aition (plural aitia); sometimes it takes a feminine form, aitia (plural aitiai). Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The definition is a conjunction of two terms which normally contradict each other, along with, in Greek, a qualifying clause which seems to make the contradiction inescapable. Plato used the concept of a divided line to illustrate _____. (B) It defines the scope of our potential as well-functioning human beings. _____ is probably the most widely read work in Western philosophy. Definition of The Theory of Forms. Socrates A. FALSE. Traditionally, wisdom has been associated with _____ in a way that knowledge has not. More… (A) It refers to the "inner urge" implanted by nature in all living things that compel them to realize their happiness and potential. Aristotle describes and argues for the four causes in his books Physics and Metaphysics as a part of developing his philosophy of substance.He claims that there are four causes (or explanations) needed to explain change in the world. (B) It defines the scope of our potential as well-functioning human beings. Socrates used _____ to communicate on more than one level. The Socratic method begins with the assumption that _____. a greek term which refers to knowledge, science, or understanding. Socrates used sarcasm as a technique for keeping his listeners alert and involved. Argot definition, a specialized idiomatic vocabulary peculiar to a particular class or group of people, especially that of an underworld group, devised for private communication and identification:a Restoration play rich in thieves' argot. In “Leibnizianisme”, he brings together Aristotle’s entelechy, Leibniz’s monads, and sensitivity as a “general property of matter” (Enc. When we reject a philosopher's argument because we object to that philosopher's beliefs, we commit which type of fallacy? Zeno was born in about 490 B.C.E. Socrates, born in Athens in 470 BC, is often credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy. The four causes are: _____. And what we give in … Aristotle himself described his subject matter in a variety of ways:as ‘first philosophy’, or ‘the study of being quabeing’, or ‘wisdom’, or ‘theology’. What was the Oracle at Delphi's ambiguous reply to the question: Is anyone wiser than Socrates? greek term meaning "the realization of potential" Episteme. So great was Aristotle's influence on later thinkers that for centuries educated persons knew him simply as _____. the eternally existing form of the elephant, According to the Melchert text, if Plato is right, then if "Gertrude" names an individual elephant, the term "elephant" names, Forms are related to visible things by being, the prisoners represent all of us before we begin to search for wisdom, turning the soul of the student toward the real, As presented in the Melchert text, according to Plato, education is, As presented in the Melchert text, according to Plato, a moral person. Plato divided the human soul into three parts: _____. Hylomorphism, (from Greek hylē, “matter”; morphē, “form”), in philosophy, metaphysical view according to which every natural body consists of two intrinsic principles, one potential, namely, primary matter, and one actual, namely, substantial form. According to Aristotle, the lowest level of soul is the _____ soul. Aristotle was a Greek philosopher. Everything that happens to you has a reason—but there’s a way of thinking about this that empowers you in life. According to Bertrand Russell, philosophy is to be studied for the answers it provides. For Aristotle, _____ is that at which all things aim. The Greek word is aition (plural aitia); sometimes it takes a feminine form, aitia (plural aitiai). Greek art, he says, was an especially marvelous form of poiêsis lost to us in the modern construction of the aesthetic. High attainment in culture, science, and the arts had only existed, however, where there was a large admixture of the Aryan. Protagoras was one of the later sophists who taught that might makes right. According to the Melchert text, we know about Socrates primarily, According to the Melchert text, in discussions with others, Socrates, agreement that a satisfactory answer hadn't been reached, According to the Melchert text, conversations with Socrates generally end with, According to the Melchert text, to benefit from a conversation with Socrates, you need to be, it is better than to suffer injustice than to do it. Plato (427-347 B.C.E. Entelechy, (from Greek entelecheia), in philosophy, that which realizes or makes actual what is otherwise merely potential. Iliad – long, mostly fictional poem about a brief period during the 9 year Trojan War (near end of 13 th B.C.) In Platonic terms, a thing's _____ is what makes it what it is. Historically, however, the word, as now used, is to be traced, not to Greek usage, but to early Christian institutions. 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